Primeros pasos con la Raspberry Pi ( I )

La pequeña plaquita que contiene la Raspberry Pi es como una llave suiza, puedes utilizarla para lo que sea. Se puede convertir en tu otro ordenador, en un centro multimedia, en un espacio de almacenamiento en red o hasta en una consola de videojuegos. Solo tu imaginación pone los límites.

Si acabas de adquirir una Raspberry Pi y quieres ponerla en marcha nada mejor que continúes con la lectura de este artículo y de los siguientes que llegarán próximamente. Descubrirás los primeros pasos en su puesta en marcha y configuración inicial.

Descarga el Sistema Operativo

Desde la siguiente dirección http://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads procede a la descarga del S.O. En este caso, elige como opción RAPSBIAN, una de las distribuciones más utilizadas y completas para instalar en la RasPi. Comprimido en un archivo ZIP, el sistema se suministra en una imagen con formato IMG.

Copia RASPBIAN a la tarjeta SD o Micro SD

Para copiar el Sistema Operativo utiliza el programa Win32 Disk Imager. Puedes conseguir la última versión estable desde http://sourceforge.net/projects/win32diskimager/files/Archive. Te recomiendo que descargues la versión portable.

Una vez descomprimida y abierta la aplicación Win32 Disk Imager hay que buscar la imagen que se bajó en el anterior punto (1), elegir la unidad donde está la tarjeta SD o Micro SD(2) y hacer clic en el botón Write(3).

Antes de iniciarse el proceso de copia, la aplicación nos avisa de que los datos contenidos en la tarjeta se eliminarán. Haz clic en Yes para continuar.

Conecta y accede a la Raspberry Pi

Inserta la tarjeta SD, conecta el cable red a un puerto del router y el cable micro USB de alimentación a un equipo de sobremesa, portátil, tablet o incluso un puerto USB de un router (si lo tienes) para arrancar la RasPi.

Con los pasos descritos en el párrafo anterior será suficiente para poder acceder a la RasPi e interactuar con el sistema RASPBIAN a través de una terminal. Para ello, descarga Pi Bootstrap en https://github.com/adafruit/Adafruit-Pi-Finder/releases/tag/v1.0-beta. Esta aplicación está disponible para la mayoría de plataformas. En la imagen de abajo se descarga la edición para el sistema Windows.

Tras descomprimir el contenido en una carpeta, ejecuta el archivo PiBootstrap.exe para abrir la aplicación. Haz clic en el botón Find My Pi! para que busque la RasPi.

Si todo va bien, aparecerá una nueva ventana con información sobre la RasPi: dirección IP asignada (1), nombre y contraseña de usuario (2), nombre del dispositivo (3) y nombre y contraseña de la red WiFi (4). Ahora, como primer paso, haz clic en el botón Bootstrap!.  De esta manera, sin utilizar ningún comando, RASPBIAN se actualizará e instalará aplicaciones esenciales.

Una vez finalizado el paso anterior, lo siguiente es acceder a la línea de comandos del sistema operativo. Para ello, haz clic en el botón SSH Terminal.

Configuración inicial

RASPBIAN dispone de una herramienta para realizar una primera configuración. En la línea de comandos teclea lo siguiente para que aparezca:

pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo raspi-config

De todas las opciones que se muestran en el menú, en nuestro caso, son interesantes las cuatro primeras:

  • Expand Filesystem: Se configura en el caso de tener una SD de más de 2 GB. Lo que nos permite usar toda su capacidad ya que, por defecto, al grabar la imagen se limita la capacidad a 2 GB.
  • Enable Boot to Desktop/Scratch: Opcional. Permite acceder al sistema en modo gráfico (GUI). Como ahora estás dentro de la RasPi con una terminal de acceso remoto en modo texto, aunque actives esta opción, no lo verás. Más adelante veremos como cambiar esto. De todas formas, aunque no actives esta opción, si no se utiliza el acceso remoto siempre se podrá activar el entorno gráfico desde la línea de comandos con starx.
  • Change User Password: Por seguridad, es necesario cambiar cuanto antes la contraseña del usuario Pi.
  • Internationalisation Options. De esta opción es recomendable cambiar la zona horaria (Change Timezone) por la de Europa, Madrid. El teclado y otras configuraciones ya están en nuestro idioma.

El menú se utiliza con el teclado. Las teclas de dirección (flechas) son para moverse entre las opciones, Entrar/Intro para acceder y/o aceptar y Esc para salir del menú.

Y para finalizar…

En el próximo artículo aprenderás a configurar una dirección IP estática para que cada vez que accedas a la Raspberry Pi su dirección siempre sea la misma. Además, también harás lo propio para establecer una red WiFi y alguna sorpresa más.

Autor: Manuel García

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