Primeros pasos con la Raspberry Pi ( II )

En esta segunda parte aprenderás a establecer la configuración de red. Por un lado, implementando una dirección IP estática para que no cambie con el tiempo la dirección de acceso, y por otro, la red WiFi para evitar el uso del cable.

Para dichas tareas habrá que ver y editar ciertas configuraciones que están almacenadas en archivos del sistema RASPBIAN. Manos a la obra!!!.

Configura la dirección IP estática

Antes de comenzar, conviene recordar que la aplicación de acceso remoto que has utilizado hasta ahora, es decir, Pi Bootstrap es útil cuando desconoces la dirección IP de acceso y realizas configuraciones de puesta en marcha.

Para realizar tareas más complejas es más eficiente utilizar otras aplicaciones de acceso remoto más personalizables como, por ejemplo, PuTTY. Si utilizas Linux para acceder a la RaspPi puedes utilizar el comando integrado ssh.  Descarga PuTTY desde la dirección http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html.
 
 
Una vez que hayas descargado la aplicación, ejecútala. Donde dice Host name introduce la dirección IP asignada a la RaspPi que, en tu caso, es la 192.168.0.101. Después pulsa la tecla Intro.
 

En la nueva ventana que aparece tecle el nombre de usuario (1), es decir, Pi. Después pulsa Intro. A continuación, se te solicita la contraseña (2). Recuerda que la habías cambiado antes desde el menú de raspi-config. Vuelve a pulsar Intro y accederás al sistema operativo.

Después de introducir las credenciales es posible que te aparezca una ventana emergente como la que ves a los pies de este texto, si es así, haz clic en .

Paso 1

Ahora si, continuarás con el proceso de configurar una dirección IP fija. Para ello, en primer lugar, deberás conocer las interfaces de red disponibles en la RasPi y, de paso, ver las configuraciones IP. Para esto se utiliza el comando ifconfig:

pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo ifconfig

La RasPi integra una interfaz de red que se suele identificar en este sistema por eth0. Además puedes comprobar que tiene asignada la dirección IP automática 192.168.0.101. Recuerda que esta IP te la alquila el servidor DHCP de tu router por un periodo limitado de tiempo.

Otra interfaz, la lo, tiene asignada la dirección fija 127.0.0.1. Es útil para comprobar si la tarjeta de red integrada (eth0) funciona correctamente. Se puede utilizar el comando ping junto a dicha dirección IP para enviar mensajes, si se recibe respuesta es que todo está OK. Por ejemplo, ping 127.0.0.1. Para cancelar la ejecución continua del comando pulsa la combinación de teclas Ctrl+C.

Paso 2

El siguiente paso te llevará a editar el fichero interfaces para incluir una dirección IP estática, por ejemplo, la 192.168.0.150. Para esta labor utilizarás un editor de textos llamado Nano que viene incluido de serie en la mayoría de las distribuciones basadas en Linux:

pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo nano /etc/network/interfaces

Las líneas o sentencias que tienen una almohadilla (#) al lado no se ejecutan. También se suelen utilizar para comentar lo que se está haciendo.

Una vez que has copiado lo que aparece remarcado en la anterior imagen, tienes que guardar el fichero y salir del editor.

Pulsa la combinación de teclas Ctrl+X para salir.

A la pregunta de si deseas guardar los datos, pulsa la tecla Y.

Confirma para guardar los datos y salir del editor con la tecla Intro.

Paso 3

Reinicia la RasPi para que los cambios sean efectivos. Utilizarás el comando reboot. Al ejecutar este comando perderás el control de la consola y tendrás que volver a iniciar sesión con PuTTY.

pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo reboot

Después de volver a iniciar sesión con la nueva dirección IP (192.168.0.150), ejecuta el comando ifconfig para ver la configuración de la interfaz eth0.

pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo ifconfig

Configura la red WiFi

Si no quieres utilizar ningún cable de red para acceder de forma remota es posible si utilizas un adaptador WiFi USB. Pero no vale cualquiera, ya que muchos suelen tener problemas decompatibilidad. Mi recomendación es utilizar adaptadores que cumplan con las especificaciones de la Fundación Raspberry Pi. Una de las empresas que si lo hace es New IT. Actualmente en Amazon España disponen de un modelo de los que se llama plug&play (se conecta y listo) sin necesidad de drivers y totalmente compatible:http://www.amazon.es/USB-Wifi-Adapter-Raspberry-Pi/dp/B00EZOQFHO/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1422706164&sr=8-1&keywords=usb+wifi+raspberry+pi

Desconozco si con la nueva Raspberry Pi 2 junto al futuro Windows 10 (que será gratuito) funcionará de forma correcta.

Paso 1

Lo primero, evidentemente, será conectar a un puerto USB de la RaspPi el adaptador WiFi. Después, ejecuta el comando ifconfig para comprobar que se ha detectado. La interfaz suele identificarse por wlan0:

 
Seguidamente, edita el fichero interfaces para comprobar que existen determinadas líneas para que funcione la WiFi:

pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo nano /etc/network/interfaces

Guarda y sal del Nano. Ahora, editarás el fichero wap_supplicant.conf para incluir el SSID (nombre de la red) y contraseña que utilices para conectarte a tus dispositivos. Se utilizan unas llaves { } para incluir estos datos:

pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo nano /etc/wap_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf


Paso 2

Guarda y sal de Nano. Reinicia el sistema, una vez más, con el comando reboot para que los cambios sean efectivos.pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo rebootVuelve a abrir PuTTY e inicia sesión. Comprueba con el comando ifconfig que la interfaz wlan0 tiene una dirección IP asignada. Si es así, ya puedes acceder sin necesidad de utilizar cable!!!.

Y para finalizar…

En la tercera parte hablaré de como acceder de forma remota por entorno gráfico. Verás distintas aplicaciones y técnicas para que el acceso sea instantáneo.

Autor: Manuel García

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